The first Quantum post went over the concept of reality and the strange way that observation can create reality.
You think that’s strange? As they say, you hadn’t seen nothing yet!
Suppose twins were born and then separated at birth. They’re divided in distance completely across the Atlantic ocean.
One of them cuts their finger and the other instantly feels pain. Seem impossible?
Suppose the concept that every single atom is connected in some way, where space and distance is not relevant. Is that possible?
Quantum Entanglement. It is a link that Einstein went to his grave denying, but yet it has been PROVEN to be true.
Quantum entanglement was part of the famed Copenhagen Interpretation presented by Niels Bohr in which particles can become entangled so that the spin or characteristics of one particle becomes entangled with another particle.
Entangled “particles” are emitted in a single event. Conservation laws ensure that the measured spin of one particle must be the opposite of the measured spin of the other, so that if the spin of one particle is measured, the spin of the other particle is now instantaneously known.
The most discomforting aspect of this paradox is that the effect is instantaneous so that something that happens in one galaxy could cause an instantaneous change in another galaxy.
But, according to Einstein’s theory of special relativity, no information-bearing signal or entity can travel at or faster than the speed of light, which is finite. Thus, it seems as if the Copenhagen interpretation is inconsistent with special relativity.
In 1935, responding to Niels Bohr’s advocacy that quantum mechanics as a theory was complete, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen formulated the famed EPR paradox.
The quantum mechanical thought experiment concluded that either nonlocal interaction exists or the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is incomplete.
Albert Einstein famously derided entanglement as “spukhafte Fernwirkung” or “spooky action at a distance”.
Some 40 years later, the physicist John Bell predicted that many hidden-variables theories would be ruled out if a certain experimental inequality were violated – known as “Bell’s inequality”.
Without going into the specifics of the experiment, the more inequalities that occur, the more likelihood that the “spooky action at a distance” is proven correct. Since the Bell’s inequality proposal, several experiments have been performed.
Each of the experiments have indicated the entanglement paradox is true.
As time goes by, with improvements in experiments and technology, it becomes clear that the entanglement paradox actually occurs.
In fact, using the entanglement paradox, a concept of an “impossible to tap” communication link has been experimentally in use for about 6 years.
So particles are “entangled” from a single physical event, making them connected in a mysterious way.
Been proven and re-proven by the use of “Bell’s inequalities”. It’s true, so what does that mean?
The Big Bang creation of the existing universe was one physical event.
This means that all particles are connected and the very definition of space and distance may not be correct at all!
Here is an animation explaining entanglement and what it may mean.
** Again I must give credit to this “Dr. Quantum” for creating these animations. Excellent in explaining the difficult to grasp to the layperson. Thank you.
*** From information given from our resident Quantum Goddess here at MMA, the excellent MOVIE and animation of Dr. Quantum can be found at WhatTheBleep